7 Common Penetrating and Non-penetrating TBI Injuries.
  • Concussion

    Concussions are the most common type of TBI, occurring when a heavy impact on your head forces the brain to move and collide with your skull. Concussions can range from very mild symptoms to causing life-long issues.

  • Brain Hemorrhages

    Brain hemorrhages are caused when uncontrolled bleeding occurs on the surface of the brain or inside the brain tissue. Hemorrhages are localized TBI, only affecting a particular part of the brain. They are generally one of the least severe TBIs.

  • Contusions

    A contusion is a bruise on the brain causing mild bleeding. They often happen alongside concussions and can be very mild and heal on their own. If they don’t heal on their own, however, a contusion can develop into a hematoma and require surgical removal.

  • Intracranial Hematomas

    Hematomas occur when blood collects outside of blood vessels within the skull. A large hematoma can lead to serious loss of brain function, and may not form until weeks after a head injury is sustained.

  • Second Impact Syndrome

    Second impact syndrome occurs when you suffer a second brain injury before your brain has fully recovered from the first one, causing significantly more severe damage. A second impact syndrome brain injury nearly always leads to devastating effects on a person’s permanent brain function.

  • Coup-Controcoup Brain Injury

    A coup-contrecoup injury refers to two separate injuries: a coup injury, damage to the brain suffered directly at the point of impact, and a contrecoup injury, damage to the brain suffered on the opposite side of where the impact was made. A majority of coup-contrecoup injuries occur when your head slams against a stationary object, not only forcing your brain to hit the skull in the direction of the initial impact but then causing the brain to rebound and cause a second impact on the other side of the skull.

  • Diffuse Axonal Injury (DAI)

    Diffuse axonal injury occurs when an impact forces the brain to rotate and shift inside the skull, causing the long connecting nerve fibers to tear. DAI is one of the most serious and severe TBIs, often resulting in a coma and permanent loss of function. Most DAIs result in microscopic axonal tears and can be very difficult to see on a CT scan or MRI, but even microscopic tears often lead to loss of brain functions.

Severity Scale

TBI Classification

CriteriaMildModerate Severe
Loss of Consciousness (LOC) 0-30 minutes 30 minutes – 24 hours >24 hours
Alteration of Consciousness (AOC) A moment up to 24 hours >24 hours >24 hours
Post-traumatic Amnesia (PTA) 0-1 days Between 1-7 days >7 days
Glasgow Coma Scale 13-15 9-12 >8
Structural Imaging Normal Normal or Abnormal Normal or Abnormal

Traumatic Brain Injury Symptoms

MildShort-TermPotential Long-term

Symptoms of mild TBIs can be intense and feel severe, but they tend to be short-term symptoms and don’t require medical intervention. They can be treated by closely monitoring the person and the symptoms should gradually improve over time.

  • Headaches

  • Nausea

  • Lightheadedness

  • Vomiting

  • Difficulty sleeping

  • Higher sensitivity to light and sound

  • Mild memory loss

  • Migraines


A brain injury begins to be considered moderately severe if an individual requires emergency medical attention to minimize long-term brain damage. The symptoms of a moderate TBI may appear similar to a mild TBI, but the symptoms often don’t improve as quickly or may not improve at all.

  • Seizures

  • Memory loss

  • Dilated pupils

  • Muscle weakness

  • Loss of coordination

  • Headaches

  • Lightheadedness

  • Difficulty sleeping

  • Nausea

  • Personality changes (agitation, laziness, combativeness)

SevereShort-termLong-term or permanent

Severe TBI symptoms can include all symptoms of mild and moderate TBIs, but the symptoms may be completely permanent. Severe TBIs nearly always require emergency medical care to save the victim’s life and will likely require extensive long-term treatment.

  • Complete loss of consciousness for up to several hours

  • Slurred speech

  • Loss of balance and coordination

  • Paralysis

  • Memory loss

  • Inability to create new memories after the injury is sustained

Traumatic Brain Injury Statistics

  • 2.8 Million

    2.8 million sustain traumatic brain injuries in the US every year

  • 214,000

    There were approximately 214,000 TBI-related hospitalizations in 2020

  • 50%

    Motor vehicle crashes account for 50% of all TBIs

  • 69,000

    There were over 69,000 TBI-related deaths in the US in 2021

  • 75+

    People age 75 and older account for about 32% of TBI-related hospitalizations and 28% of TBI-related deaths

  • 300,000

    Sports injuries account for nearly 300,000 TBIs every year

  • Ages 15-19 & 65+

    There were over 69,000 TBI-related deaths in the US in 2021

  • 30%

    TBI's are a contributing factor in over 30% of all injury-related eaths in the US each year

  • #1

    TBIs are #1 cause of seizure disorders worldwide

What causes a Traumatic Brain Injury?

Motor Vehicle Accidents

Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of TBI hospitalizations. The force caused by an accident involving a motor vehicle has the capability of causing the most severe TBIs, including coup-contrecoup brain injury and diffuse axonal injury. Any accident involving motor vehicles can cause serious damage, but an accident involving a semi-truck often has especially devastating consequences. The impact made by a semi-truck is exponentially larger than other standard vehicles and often results in severe brain injuries.

The negligence of a driver in a motor vehicle accident entitles you to compensation if the accident causes a brain injury to you or a loved one. Enlist the services of a Milwaukee brain injury attorney at Warshafsky Law to get the compensation you deserve.

Sports-related Impact

Sports-related impacts are one of the leading causes of concussions in teens and young adults. Concussions are the most commonly suffered form of TBI, and a majority of concussions only inflict mild to moderate symptoms. However, concussions should still be taken very seriously. A first concussion may be mild, but until the brain has fully healed, it is at risk of suffering Second Impact Syndrome, which can cause significantly more damage and permanently affect brain function.

If you or a loved one has suffered Second Impact Syndrome after being pressured to start competing too quickly after an initial concussion, contact a Milwaukee brain injury attorney at Warshafsky Law as soon as possible to seek the compensation you deserve

Malicious Violence

Malicious violence is a leading cause of penetrating TBIs. The damage is often inflicted by a gunshot, knife attack or other blunt-force object capable of cracking through the skull. A malicious attack can cause a wide array of damage to the brain, and the long-term effects of a penetrating TBI are often permanent.

You are entitled to compensation if you or a loved one has suffered a TBI after a malicious attack. The Milwaukee traumatic brain injury lawyers at Warshafsky Law are here to hold the responsible party accountable for the long-term negative effects on your life.

Slip and Fall

Slip and fall accidents are the leading cause of TBIs in people aged 65 and older, but a fall can cause moderate to severe brain injuries in people of all ages. Premise liability law states a property owner can be held liable when their negligence causes an injury on their property. The owner of a property is responsible for reasonably protecting against dangerous conditions, providing warnings and repairing dangerous conditions and reasonably inspecting their property for hazards that could cause injury. These hazards could include icy walkways, debris in walkways, uneven surfaces, poor lighting, uneven or broken stairs and more.

If you or a loved one has suffered a brain injury due to a fall caused by the negligence of a property owner, you are entitled to compensatory damages. Contact Warshafsky Law as soon as possible to file a traumatic brain injury lawsuit in Milwaukee.

Falling Objects

A blow to your head due to a falling object is capable of causing significant brain injury. A falling object can be attributed to the negligence of a job site, warehouse or retail store. You are entitled to financial compensation if you or a loved one has sustained a brain injury after being struck by a falling object. Contact Milwaukee’s trusted traumatic brain injury law firm, Warshafsky Law, to begin gathering the facts of your case and holding the negligent party accountable for the damage they’ve done to your life.

If you are seeking compensatory damages from a negligent party after a brain injury, especially if the negligent party is a large entity (large corporation, trucking company etc), it is vital to remember insurance agencies are not on your side. An insurance company will likely reach out to you with a settlement offer quickly after an incident has occurred, but the offer will likely be far less than you deserve. Insurance companies are familiar with area law firms, and you need a brain injury law firm on your side with trial-proven attorneys to guarantee you’re getting the best deal possible.

Free Case Appraisal

What damages can I receive compensation for after suffering a brain injury?

If you or a loved one have suffered a TBI due to the negligence of another party, you may be entitled to compensation for a number of damages. Work with the trusted Milwaukee brain injury attorneys at Warshafsky Law to get the compensation you deserve.

Traumatic Brain Injury Compensatory Damages

  • Lost WagesAt best, a traumatic brain injury will result in a significant period of time in which a victim will be unable to work. In severe cases, a victim may never be able to work again. You should be compensated for past and future lost wages as a result of a traumatic brain injury.

  • Medical ExpensesA moderate to severe brain injury is almost certain to come with significant medical bills and could potentially require lifelong care on a daily basis. You should be compensated for all medical expenses incurred because of the brain injury, including the cost of long-term care.

  • Pain and sufferingPain and suffering compensation covers the emotional and physical distress you have been subject to because of a traumatic brain injury. Both the victim themselves and their loved ones can be entitled to pain and suffering compensation.

  • Loss of Enjoyment of LifeA traumatic brain injury could potentially leave the victim permanently unable to live the same quality of life they had before. This damage to the quality of your life should be compensated accordingly.

Criminal vs. Civil Court Lawsuits

The criminal justice system operates independently of civil courts. A criminal action by an individual resulting in a traumatic brain injury to you or your loved one may result in criminal charges, but the outcome of their criminal case does not affect your right to seek compensatory damages through a civil lawsuit.

Even if the responsible party avoids incarceration, Warshafsky Law’s dedicated Milwaukee brain injury legal team will tirelessly pursue financial accountability. We are committed to securing the maximum compensation you deserve after suffering the effects of a traumatic brain injury, regardless of the outcome in criminal court.

A plea deal, dropped criminal charges or light sentence doesn’t have to prevent you from filing a traumatic brain injury lawsuit in Milwaukee. The expert attorneys at Warshafsky Law specialize in helping individuals and families navigate the intricate process of civil litigation after a devastating brain injury. Trust us to stand by your side as we seek the fair compensatory damages you deserve.

When you partner with Warshafsky Law, you won’t pay a penny until you are compensated. Contact our knowledgeable and compassionate Milwaukee brain injury law firm for a free consultation.

No win. No fee. Free Case Assessment.


Milwaukee Personal Injury Lawsuits Frequently Asked Questions

What is a TBI (traumatic brain injury)?

A traumatic brain injury is any forceful hit or trauma to the head which disrupts the normal functioning of the brain. A TBI can range from a mild concussion to moderate and severe. A severe brain injury can cause an extended period of unconsciousness and other lifelong neurologic changes.

What is considered a brain injury?

In addition to concussions, other types of brain injuries include hematoma, edema, skull fractures, hemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury, and anoxic brain injuries.

How much compensation should I expect following a brain injury in Wisconsin?

Depending on the severity, recovery from a brain injury could cost between $60,000 to millions of dollars. Contact Warshafsky law offices to help you pursue fair financial compensation for your injuries.

What are Warshafskys personal injury lawyers fee structure for brain injury lawsuits?

Many brain injury lawyers charge a contingency fee meaning they receive a percentage of your settlement. At Warshafsky law, we believe in "No Win, No Fee" policy.

What are common causes of brain injuries in Wisconsin?

Any trauma to the skull can result in traumatic brain injuries. These causes include auto accidents, slip and fall accidents, motorcycle accidents, and bicycle accidents.